Question: How many types of yemin (vows) and what are they?
Answer: There are three kinds of vows, namely: yeminlagv, yemingamus and yeminmun'akyd.
Yeminlagv - the oath that is given when a person assumes about the truth of something out of habit. For example, a person without seeing another person suggested that he saw him, and vowed: “Vallahi” or, not referring to the oath uttered words of the oath. This type does not require an oath of redemption. Proof of this are the verses of the Holy Quran: “Allah does not impose blame upon you for what is unintentional in your oaths, but He imposes blame upon you for what your hearts have earned” (The Quran, 2:225), “Allah will not impose blame upon you for what is meaningless in your oaths” (The Quran, 5:89).
Yemingamus – a false oath. It is swearing of something in the past, deliberately lying about it. The undertaker of this oath is sinful, but there is no expiation for it other than seeking forgiveness [from Allah]. The man, regretting what he had done, should ask Allah for forgiveness on the condition that no longer make such a mistake. If, in connection with a false oath violated the rights of another person, you need to compensate for the damage and apologize.
Yeminmun'akyd - is swearing to do something in the future, that one will carry it out - or will not carry it out. In this oath should be mentioned one of the names or epithets of Allah. If the oath is something other than Allah and His epithets, it is not considered an oath (Ibn Abidin Raddul – Mukhtar, III, 47). While this oath will not be directed to commit acts prohibited by religion or leaving religious obligations, you need to comply oath requirement. If a person breaks his oath, he will have to pay a kaffarah (Merginani, al-Hidaya, II, 72-75).